The Impact of Leakages on 401(k)/IRA Assets
Center for Retirement Research at Boston College
"Leakages from 401(k)s/IRAs are a serious concern, given that these assets are the only significant retirement saving outside of Social Security for most workers. In-service withdrawals and cashouts appear to represent the biggest sources of leakage. Overall, leakages appear to reduce aggregate 401(k)/IRA retirement wealth by about 25 percent."